Comparative Study

| Published: June 25, 2015

Levels of Processing

DIP: 18.01.030/20150203

DOI: 10.25215/0203.030


The aim of this experiment was to investigate the impact of levels of processing (Independent Variable) on our memory (Dependent Variable). We hypothesized to find that a deeper level of processing lead to a better memory and in turn, greater recall. The experiment controlled variables such as environmental conditions, age of the target population and educational background of the participants. The experiment uses the Independent Measures design and the participants are a convenience sample of teenagers. We reduced Practice Effect and Fatigue Effect by using the Single-Blind Technique. The results proved the hypothesis: Semantic encoding lead to greater retention and a deeper trace of memory whereas Structural encoding lead to a shallow processing of memory. These results are replicated in Craik and Lockhart‟s (1972), Levels of Processing model. The researches done by Hyde and Jenkins (1973) and Craik and Tulving (1975) also prove the same results: deeper levels of processing lead to better recall. The Mann-Whitney U test also made a clear distinction in the number of words recalled due to deep and shallow processing. The study also raised some limitations such as generalizations, rehearsal, ecological validity and others. In totality, the experiment effectively manipulated variables and reproduced accurate results.


Processing, memory

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Dipal Patel @

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ISSN 2348-5396

ISSN 2349-3429



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Published in   Volume 02, Issue 3, April-June, 2015